As some of you may have picked up on, there may be a book on Frida in the works. In my day to day at NowSecure I spend a good chunk of time as a user of Frida’s APIs, and consequently I’m often reminded of past design decisions that I’ve since come to regret. Even though I did address most of them over the years, some were so painful to address that I kept them on the backburner. Fast forward to today, and the thought of publishing a book with all these in mind got me thinking that it was time to bite the bullet.
This is why I’m stoked to announce Frida 12. We have finally reached a point in Frida’s evolution where our foundations can be considered sufficiently stable for a book to be written.
Let’s have a look at the changes.
One thing that caused a bit of confusion in the past was the fact that our Python bindings also came with some CLI tools. Frida is a toolkit for building tools, and even though we provide a few sample tools it should be up to you if you want to have them installed.
Up until now this meant anyone building a tool using our Python bindings would end up depending on colorama, prompt-toolkit, and pygments, because our CLI tools happen to depend on those.
Well, that changes now. If you do:
You will now only get our Python bindings. Nothing more. And this package has zero dependencies.
The CLI tools might still be useful to you, though, so to install those do:
Convenience APIs in bindings
Something that seemed like a great idea at the time was having our language bindings provide some convenience APIs on the Session object. The thinking was that simple use-cases that only need to enumerate loaded modules and perhaps a few memory ranges, to then read or write memory, wouldn’t have to load their own agent. So both our Python and our Node.js bindings did this behind the scenes for you.
Back then it was somewhat tedious to communicate with an agent as the rpc API didn’t exist, but even so, it was a bad design decision. The JS APIs are numerous and not all can be exposed without introducing new layers of complexity. Another aspect is that every language binding would have to duplicate such convenience APIs, or we would have to add core APIs that bindings could expose. Both are terrible options, and cause confusion by blurring the lines, ultimately confusing people new to Frida. Granted, it did make things easier for some very simple use-cases, like memory dumping tools, but for everybody else it just added bloat and confusion.
These APIs are now finally gone from our Python and Node.js bindings. The other bindings are unaffected as they didn’t implement any such convenience APIs.
It’s been a few years since our Node.js bindings were written, and since then Node.js has evolved a lot. It now supports ES6 classes, async / await, arrow functions, Proxy objects, etc.
Just the Proxy support alone means we can simplify rpc use-cases like:
However, for type checking and editor features to really shine, it is crucial to have type definitions for your project’s dependencies. This is rarely ever an issue these days, except for those of you using Frida’s Node.js bindings. Up until now we didn’t provide any type definitions. This has finally been resolved. Rather than augmenting our bindings with type definitions, I decided to rewrite them in TypeScript instead. This means we also take advantage of modern language features like ES6 classes and async / await.
We could have stopped there, but those of you using our Node.js bindings from TypeScript would still find this a bit frustrating:
Here, the compiler knows nothing about which events exist on the Script object, and what the callback’s signature is supposed to be for this particular event. We’ve finally fixed this. The API now looks like this:
Voilà. Your editor can even tell you which events are supported and give you proper type checking for the code in your callback. Sweet!
Something that’s caused some confusion in the past is the observation that accessing this.context.pc from onEnter or onLeave would give you the return address, and not the address of the instruction that you put the hook on. This has finally been fixed. Also, this.context.sp now points at the return address on x86, instead of the first argument. The same goes for Stalker when using call probes.
As part of this refactoring breaking our backtracer implementations, I also improved our default backtracer on Windows.
You might have wondered why
frida.get_usb_device() would give you a Device
whose type was ‘tether’. It is now finally ‘usb’ as you’d expect. So our
language bindings are finally consistent with our core API.
Changes in 12.0.1
- core: fix argument access on 32-bit x86
- core: update Stalker to the new CpuContext semantics
- python: publish the correct README to PyPI
- python: fix the Windows build system
Changes in 12.0.2
- core: upgrade to Capstone’s next branch
- core: fix the DbgHelp backtracer on Windows and update to latest DbgHelp
- python: fix long description
- java: fix hooking of java.lang.Class.getMethod() – thanks 0x3430D!
Changes in 12.0.3
- core: fix the iOS build system broken by Capstone upgrade
Changes in 12.0.4
- core: fix i/macOS libc++ initialization on early instrumentation – thanks mrmacete!
- core: add support for memory search with mask – thanks mrmacete!
- core: fix InvocationContext.get_return_address()
- node: fix crash on RPC object return from an async function
Changes in 12.0.5
- core: fix arm64 crashes caused by Capstone upgrade, where test-and-branch decoding logic failed to decode negative offsets – kudos to mrmacete for discovering and fixing this one!
- core: fix MIPS regressions and one crasher – thanks r0ck3tAKATrashPanda!
Changes in 12.0.6
- python: improve spawn() to support unicode aux options on Python 2.x
- java: fix Java.registerClass() when cache dir is missing
- java: make the temporary file naming configurable
Changes in 12.0.7
- core: fix early instrumentation on iOS 11.3.1 through 11.4.1 – thanks mrmacete!
Changes in 12.0.8
- core: fix launching of Android apps with custom process name – thanks giantpune!
- java: fix ClassLinker field offset detection on Android 8.0